answer the questions 555 –

1. A fundamental characteristic of organization structure is departmentalization, which is the basis for grouping positions into departments and departments into the total organization. Managers make choices about how to use the chain of command to group people together to perform their work. Write a short essay that describes and compares and contrasts the advantages and disadvantages of two approaches—the functional approach and the divisional approach—to departmentalization. In most instances, which do you think would be the preferred approach, and why?

2. Traditional vertical organization structures are very limited in a fast-shifting environment. In an essay, explain why horizontal coordination and collaboration are needed, and discuss the mechanisms used to increase horizontal coordination. Give your assessment (with examples) of why these mechanisms are effective.