answer tow questions –

Instructions: Please answer both questions. The page limit for question one is about 2 pages. The page limit for question two is the same. Both responses should be double-spaced, with one-inch margins. Do not exceed the page limit of 6 total pages.


Do not reproduce the exam questions above your answers—this takes up space you can use for your answer. Do number your responses.

Put the authors’ arguments you discuss into your own words. Do not quote directly from the text. Points may be deducted for use of direct quotations.

Make sure to address all parts of the question prompt in your answer.

You do not need to include a formal introduction or conclusion—just focus on addressing the questions in the prompt.

Try your best to write clearly and concisely. Remember, this is your chance to show how well you know this material.

Make sure to proofread and edit your work before turning in your exam.

Citing materials: I expect you to reference materials correctly. It should be clear where ideas, information and arguments are coming from—if they are your own (you can say “I”), an assigned reading, or another source. For example, when referencing an argument from Zelizer, you could include a parenthetical citation at the end of your sentence, such as (Zelizer, 1985). Or you could write something like “Zelizer argues that children went from being viewed as economically useful to useless”.

You do not need to include a reference list for this exam as you will be drawing on materials listed on the syllabus and/or used in lectures.

Exam Questions

1.Zelizer argues that the debate about child labor and the way it unfolded over time was influenced by other events and trends that were happening in U.S. society more broadly over the same period. Identify these factors and explain how each one shaped the debate over child labor, and the eventual social shift to the view of children as economically “useless” and valued for sentimental reasons. Then, read the article “The Overlooked Children Working America’s Tobacco Fields”. What similarities and differences do you see between the situation described for child tobacco workers today and what you described above for the period Zelizer describes?

Link to article: (Links to an external site.)

2.Using examples from class readings, the film The Raising of America and lecture material on child development, what kinds of environments are the most beneficial for children’s physical, emotional and social growth and development? Describe three barriers standing in the way of providing these environments to children, and whether they are experienced equally across social groups, and how they could affect children’s development. Finally, based on your prior discussion, describe a specific change you would make to an institution that affects children and their families that you think would improve children’s well-being, making sure to support and explain your answer. Make sure to draw on multiple readings in your answer.