reply to this discussion 3 references needed costochondritis geraldine –

Costochondritis is the inflammation of the costochondral joints or the cartilage that connects the ribs and the sternum or in the chest area. The pain can sometimes imitate like a heart attack or more severe forms of pain in the chest by reproducibility on palpation and without any findings in the chest x-ray, electrocardiogram, and blood examinations (Bhatt, 2019). The illness is typical in 28 % of the same noncardiac individuals with chest pain and it is common among women than men who are at the age of 40 years old and above (Ferri, 2018). The reasons for costochondritis may be due to chest injury, excessive exertion, heavy lifting, viral infection, heavy coughing, and infection related to surgery.

According to Zaruba and Wilson (2017), signs and symptoms include discomfort and tenderness in the chest. The pain is in the left chest area that is sharp in the font then radiates to the arm and shoulder. Also, the pain increases with inhalation, coughing, and application of pressure to the sternum and ribs meet. The pain subsides when an individual performs shallow breaths. Diagnosis is made when heart attaches ruled out. Besides, the details and physical assessment help in diagnosing the costochondritis. The electrocardiogram and chest x-ray help in ruling out cardiopulmonary problems (Ferri, 2018). The treatment and management emphasize the relief of pain in the chest that usually goes away. Nevertheless, the pain may take time to get relieved.

In summary, the patient is educated with interventions such as hot and cold application, prevention of activities that cause chest pain, nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen when needed for pain. The patient is advised to revisit the clinic or go to the emergency room if there is shortness of breath, fever, or signs and symptoms of infection like redness, warmth, swelling around the ribs, and when the pain gets worse even with the pain relief. Also, when chest pain increases with every breath (Mayo, 2018).


Bhatt, D. L. (2019). Ask the Doctor. Harvard Heart Letter, 29(12), 2.

Ferri, F. (2018). 2018 Ferri’s Clinical Advisor. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.

Mayo Clinic. (2018). Costochondritis. Retrieved May 2018 from

Zaruba, R. A., & Wilson, E. (2017). Impairment based band treatment of costochondritis: A Case Series. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 12(3), 458.